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Date products and their wastes
Applications of dates in the food industry can be used in the preparation of bread, cakes, natural sweeteners in food formulations, including fruit syrup and ice cream.
Other uses of dates include medicinal and medical uses such as the production of vinegar, alcohol and acid. Date pulp can also be used as animal feed.
Dates, or the fruit of the palm tree, is one of the oldest agricultural products in the Middle East.
Lower quality dates are usually used in various food industries in the form of puree, nectar and paste.
Date nectar is used in products such as ice cream, bread, cakes and in chocolate dairy drinks as a component in its sweeteners.
Dates can be used in the fermentation process due to their high content of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals and low amounts of protein.
Dates can be used directly as a fruit and indirectly in various processing industries such as ethyl alcohol, citric acid, yeast paste and fructose-rich syrup.
Production of syrup with high fructose content
Dates have a large amount of glucose and fructose. By separating fructose with the help of chromatography, it is possible to prepare syrups with 55% fructose content, and by enzymatic conversion of glucose to fructose, syrups with higher fructose content were obtained.
Use dates as a substitute for sugar
Nowadays, people tend to consume foods with low fat and sugar, and due to the fact that removing sugar and fat from foods such as sweets is not practical, so it is recommended to replace sugar and fat in these foods with other substances. Different types of dates have significant amounts of sugar, so dates can be used as a sugar substitute in food formulations.
Date sugar is a concentrate of date juice that is produced after the extraction and purification of date extract by removing pectin, protein, fiber and dye compounds. Liquid date sugar has a honey-like appearance that varies in color from brown to light yellow The main sugars are fructose and glucose, which are almost equal in proportion Which is similar in sugar composition to beehive honey and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
This product is used in energy drinks, baking products (cakes and sugar products), dairy products and other industries and has been proposed as a suitable alternative to HFCS .Low tendency to crystallize (sugar), low moisture capacity and high sweetening power are its advantages over sucrose, so its production and consumption is economical.
The process of producing vinegar from dates consists of two stages of anaerobic fermentation of alcoholic fermented liquid production and then aerobic fermentation of alcoholic fermented liquid to vinegar. The anaerobic process of converting the extract extracted from dates into alcoholic fermented liquid is similar to the ethanol process. Alcoholic fermentation fluid is converted to acetic acid by bacteria of the species Acetobacter coli. The effluent contains 4-6% acetic acid. The above solution is marketed as vinegar after pasteurization.
Healing properties of date vinegar
Alcoholic fermentation of sugars is a biochemical process performed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
To produce ethanol from dates, it is first necessary to extract it to extract sugar from dates. The amount of sugar obtained in the extraction process depends on several parameters such as continuous or continuous system, one or two stages, time, temperature, … .